passed from the control
clergy to that of
lawyers and businessmen.
Eventually it must be
given over to the
the scientists. Teachers
must be free beings,
real leaders, to the end
that philosophy, the
search for wisdom,
may become the chief
In the earlier years of colleges and universities, the governing boards were
largely composed of clergymen.... During the past few decades, the government of
higher education has fallen into new hands—those of lawyers and men of
It is most astonishing that it should ever have occurred to anyone that the
policies of higher education could properly be directed by men of business....
Business men are enterprisers in the status quo. They are peculiarly sensitive
to anything that disturbs the processes whereby they carry on their operations.
Hence they have brought an increasing pressure to bear to keep colleges and
universities "safe," with the result that the spirit of independent research in
all matters affecting economic and political life has been more or less openly
discouraged.... It is something of [the] spirit of the philosopher that is needed in our
education.... Education of the future will seek for the wisdom that embraces all
the manifold details of life in a comprehensive grasp of what life is for.
—H. A. Overstreet (1933)