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PAPER 59 - "The Marine Life Era on Urantia"
Article and chart  ©  2004 by Saskia Raevouri

Paleozoic (marine-life] era covers the next 250,000,000 years.

1. The CAMBRIAN period 

All life is under the sea during this period.

Primitive marine animals are well established and are prepared for the next evolutionary development. Ameba are typical survivors of this initial stage of animal life, having made their appearance toward the close of the preceding transition period.

The higher protozoan type of animal life soon appeared, and appeared suddenly. And from these far-distant times the AMEBA, the typical single-celled animal organism, has come on down but little modified. He disports himself today much as he did when he was the last and greatest achievement in life evolution. 

This minute creature and his protozoan cousins are to the animal creation what BACTERIA are to the plant kingdom; they represent the survival of the first early evolutionary steps in life differentiation together with failure of subsequent development. [732]


Ameba (top right) and protozoan cousins

400,000,000 years ago marine life, both vegetable and animal, is fairly well distributed over the whole world. As this era begins, the sea bottoms, the extensive continental shelves, and the numerous shallow near-shore basins are covered with prolific vegetation. 

Undersea vegetation, algae (seaweed)

Vegetation now for the first time crawls out on land and adapts to a non-marine environment.

The first land plants, liverworts and mosses

Before long the early single-celled animal types associated themselves in communities, first on the plan of the Volvox and presently along the lines of the Hydra and jellyfish. [732]




A Hydra Lesson

* * *

390,000,000 years ago suddenly the first multicellular animals – the trilobites appear and dominate the seas.

Trilobite fossils present certain basic uniformities coupled with certain well-marked variations that developed according to where they were originally planted.

360,000,000 years ago marine life consisted mainly of seaweeds, one-celled organisms, simple sponges, trilobites and other crustaceansshrimps, crabs, and lobsters.

A simple sponge




Three thousand varieties of brachiopods appear at the close of this era.

2. The ORDOVICIAN period 

310,000,000 years ago the land plants well developed and migrating farther and farther from the seashores, but few plant fossils of these times are to be found.

Animal life consisted of every type of life below the vertebrate scale, and all were marine organisms, except for a few types of worms that burrowed along the seashores.

1. Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)


liver fluke
turbellaria tapeworm
2. Ribbon worms (Nemertea)


anatomy of a ribbon worm
3. Roundworms (Nematoda)

The trilobites were still prominent, tens of thousands of patterns, predecessors of modern crustaceans.

Lime-secreting algae was widespread.

There were ancestral corals.

Sea worms were abundant

Many varieties of jellyfish appeared.

Corals and the later types of sponges evolved.

Cephalopods were well developed, consisting of the modern pearly nautilus, octopus, cuttlefish, and squid.

Three were many varieties of shell animals: gastropods included single-shelled drills, periwinkles, and snails; bivalve gastropods embrace muscles, clams, oysters, and scallops; valve-shelled brachiopods

Next: Paper 60- "Urantia During the Early Land-Life Era"

For further study and more photos, check out the following websites:
A Great Website for Evolution
Tree of Life Project